They were not parallel societies, but in C Level Contact List many cases they could be considered that way. It is true that they stood for election, they fought in the streets, they demonstrated: all this was as important as being, in themselves, the living expression of what they wanted to build. The socialist and social democratic parties did not intend to constitute themselves as mere electoral C Level Contact List machines, but as the expression of a cause that wanted to "win hearts and minds." Christophe Prochasson points out that, at least at this stage, socialism must be understood as a culture6. Let's C Level Contact List remember: the spirit of democratic socialism resided in being a life project rather than an electoral project. In a socialism that was "a set of beliefs in search of its scientific foundation", as Horacio Tarcus has defined it, Marxism fit like a glove.
Given that from its inception it tended to present itself as C Level Contact List a scientific explanation based on class antagonism and a critical reading of political economy, socialists were no longer able to argue that socialism was ethically superior to capitalism, but that, through C Level Contact List of the Marxist instrumentality, could also "scientifically" prove its necessity. Socialist organizations predominantly adopted this perspective, but never abandoned the C Level Contact List ethical and moral dimensions that guided them.
As the British historian and writer C Level Contact List Tony Judt affirms, the Marxism of those democratic socialists was, rather than an absolutely closed system, a set of self-imposed neo-Kantian norms and rules about what is wrong and what should be, but within a C Level Contact List scientific penumbra for the purpose of explaining – to themselves and to others – how to get from here to there with the confidence that history was on his side. (…) Strictly speaking, from the version of capitalism C Level Contact List that Marx gives, one cannot extract a reason why socialism should (in a moral sense) exist.7 According to Judt's position, democratic socialists needed Marxism not so much to claim the socialization of the means of production as to give a scientific halo to an eminently ethical-political position.